|Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th Edition||Public Domain via Project Gutenberg|
(1851- ), Norwegian geologist, was born in Christiania on the 10th of November 1851, and educated in that city. In 1876 he was appointed curator of the geological museum in his native city, and assistant on the Geological Survey. He was professor of mineralogy and geology from 1881 to 1890 in the university of Stockholm, and from 1890 in the university of Christiania. He also became rector and president of the senate of the royal university of Christiania. His observations on the igneous rocks of south Tirol compared with those of Christiania afford much information on the relations of the granitic and basic rocks. The subject of the differentiation of rock-types in the process of solidification as plutonic or volcanic rocks from a particular magma received much attention from him. He dealt also with the Palaeozoic rocks of Norway, and with the late glacial and post-glacial changes of level in the Christiania region. The honorary degree of Ph.D. was conferred upon him by the university of Heidelberg and that of LL.D. by the university of Glasgow. The Murchison medal of the Geological Society of London was awarded to him in 1891.